Paul addressing the Roman Church
Rom 1.1-7; Introduction; Paul introduces himself and describes the gospel
Rom 1.8-15; Intention; Paul states his intention to come to Rome. That they may be mutually encouraged and so he can preach the gospel.
Rom 1.16-17; Statement; Paul gives reasons why he is not ashamed of the gospel
Rom 2.6-11; Dialogue-Paul; Paul corrects IJ’s assumption that Greeks will always be punished and Jews will always be favoured by God by describing how God’s end time judgment on Jews and Greeks will be worked out.
- God gives back to people the way they have behaved in their lives (2.6)
- God will give eternal life those who by patience and good works seek glory, honor, and immortality (2.7,10).
- God will punish those who are self seeking, do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness (2.8,9).
- In both cases God’s judgement is impartial between Jews and Greeks (2.11).
Rom 2.12-16; Dialogue-Paul; Paul denies Jews will be automatically saved. He says both groups who have sinned will be punished. But Paul affirms those who do the law, including Gentiles will be those justified at the end.
Rom 2.25-29; Dialogue-Paul; Paul denies the circumcised will be automatically regarded as the righteous. Opposing this he affirms those who are uncircumcised but keep the God’s law will be praised as God’s people. Paul says no one is a Jew merely outwardly and neither is circumcision outward. A Jew is one inwardly who has experienced circumcision of the heart by the Spirit. God praises men like this.
Rom 3.1-9; Speech in Character-Paul and IJ; IJ asks a series of questions opposing Paul. Questions about God’s faithfulness to his covenant promises and his unfaithful people. Paul answers IJ’s questions rebutting IJ.
Rom 3.10-20; Dialogue-Paul; Paul quotes a series of passages from the law condemning those under the law. In light of this Paul denies that God will identify the righteous by the Jewish works of law. Rather through looking at Jewish history the Jews can know they are under sin.
- God’s righteousness-His fulfillment of his promises has been manifested apart from the Jewish law (3.21).
- God’s righteousness has come through the faithfulness of Jesus Christ in the gospel (3.22a).
- There is no distinction between Jewish and Gentile people (3.22b).
- All have sinned and fall short of God’s glory and (all) are justified by Christ’s redemption (3.23-24).
- Jesus was put forward as a propitiation which is received by faith (3.25a).
- In this God shows his kingly judgment on sin and the covenant salvation he promised (3.25b-26a).
- So now God identifies as righteous those who have faith in Jesus (3.26b).
Rom 3.27-31; Speech in Character-Paul and IJ; IJ asks about the Jewish boast that they alone are God’s people and by what principle this is overthrown. Paul answers the righteous are identified by their faith in Christ and not by the Jewish works of law because God is god of both Jews and Gentiles, not the Jews alone. IJ’s questions why the Jewish law has been overthrown. Paul replies saying Jews can still observe and uphold their law.
Rom 4.16-22; Dialogue-Paul; It depends on faith so the promises may rest on God’s grace and guaranteed to all Abraham’s offspring which includes all who share his faith. Abraham faith is commended and is the reason why it was counted as righteousness.
Paul addressing the Roman Church
Rom 4.23-25; Assurance; Paul recognises the Roman Church believes and says righteousness will be counted to them as well because they believe.
Rom 5.1-5; Assurance; Paul says the believers are now justified by faith and have peace with God through Christ. They have received the Holy Spirit and they will grow in character.
Rom 5.6-11; Assurance; Paul says God loves them so much that Christ died for them while they were still sinners. So now they have been made righteous and reconciled to God.
Rom 5.12-21; Teaching; Paul describes everyones sin and death in Adam and justification and new life in Christ
Rom 6.1-14; Exhortation-Teaching; The believers are dead to sin and alive to God, and should live that way.
Rom 6.15-23; Exhortation-Teaching; The believers have been redeemed by Christ and are now slaves to righteousness.
Rom 7.1-6; Teaching; Jewish believers have been released from the Jewish law and now serve in the new way of the Spirit.
Rom 7.7-25; Speech in Character; Paul speaking from the viewpoint of a Jew in captivity to the law and sin explains the current Jewish situation without Christ.
Rom 8.1-11; Teaching; Paul says believers have been set free from the law of sin and death. They now live in the Spirit so that the righteous requirement of the law will be fulfilled. The indwelling Spirit will raise them from the dead.
Rom 8.12-17; Exhortation; Believers are debtors to God, to live according to the Spirit, not to the flesh. They are heirs with Christ and children of God provided they suffer with Christ.
Rom 8.18-30; Assurance; Paul tell the believers about the future glory that will be revealed in believers and creation. They await the redemption of their bodies. All things work for the good of those who love God. God has predestined them, called them, justified them and glorified them.
Rom 8.31-39; Assurance; God is for us. It is God who justifies. Jesus died and was raised and is interceding for us. Nothing can separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus.
Rom 9.1-29; Teaching; Not all Jews have received Christ. Paul mourns and explains what is happening. God has chosen the Gentiles and hardened the Jews.
Rom 9.30-10.4; Teaching; Israel does not believe and are ignorant of the righteousness of God and try to establish their own. Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.
Rom 10.5-21; Teaching-Assurance; The promised return from exile has been fulfilled in Jesus for both Jews and Gentiles who believe. All who call on the name of the Lord will be saved. The Jews have rejected God’s voice for a long time.
Rom 11.1-10; Teaching; God has not rejected Israel, there is a remnant chosen by grace.
Rom 11.11-24; Teaching; Gentiles have been grafted into Israel where the disobedient Jews have been cut off. Gentiles were added to make Israel jealous.
Rom 11.25-36; Teaching; The mystery of Israel’s salvation. Jewish disobedience leads to mercy for the Gentiles which leads to mercy for the jealous Jews.
Rom 12.1-2; Instructions; Paul instructs them to present themselves as living sacrifices, being transformed by the renewing of their minds.
Rom 12.3-8; Instructions; The church has been given differing gifts of grace they are to use in service. Prophecy, serving, teaching, exhortation, giving, leadership and mercy.
Rom 12.9-21; Instructions; Instruction on how to live as believers. Love, forgive, serve.
Rom 13.1-7; Instructions; Submission to the Authorities
Rom 13.8-14; Instructions; Further instructions on how to live as believers. Fulfilling the Law Through Love. Avoidance of sin and wrongdoing.
Rom 14.1-12; Instructions; Jews and Gentiles should not pass judgment on one another regarding commands of the Jewish law. All will give an account of their behaviour before God.
Rom 14.13-23; Instruction; Believers should resolve not to cause others to stumble because of what they consider clean and righteous. Whatever does not proceed from faith is sin.
Rom 15.1-7; Instruction; The strong have an obligation to bear with the failings of the weak and not to please themselves. Following the example of Christ. Welcome one another as Christ welcomed you for God’s glory.
Rom 15.8-13; Teaching-Prayer; Christ became a servant to confirm God’s promises and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. May God fill us with hope.
Rom 15.14-21; General; Paul has written as a bold reminder and gospel ministry to the Gentiles
Rom 15.22-33; General; Paul’s plan to visit Rome and contribution for the poor in Jerusalem.
Rom 16.1-16; General; Personal greetings to people in Rome
Rom 16.17-24; General; Final instructions and greetings. Timothy, Lucius, Jason and Sosipater greet them. Tertius the scribe greets them.
Rom 16.25-27; Close; Doxology
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